The concentrated surfactant solutions have a wide application in industry, oil recovery, drug delivery, turbulent drag reduction, etc. The competition between the companies-producers has led to use of new kind of formulations to improve: washing action; skin and eye irritation; stability and durability; biodegradability; tolerance to hard water. Here, we present a review on the state of the art and our contributions to the molecular thermodynamic theory and experiment on the growth of giant micellar aggregates. Despite the considerable advances in theory and computer simulations, agreement with experimental data has been achieved only in isolated cases. Our predictive molecular thermodynamic approach accounts for the different contributions to the micellar scission energy in the case of nonionic, zwitterionic and ionic surfactant solutions and their mixtures. Excellent agreement was achieved between the theoretical model and experimental data for wormlike surfactant micelles at various concentrations of salt and temperatures. At high salt concentrations, the model also predicts loss of chemical equilibrium, which implies a transition to self-assemblies of other morphology or the onset of crystallization and phase separation. The results have applications for the design of new products and nanostructured materials.